“They” May Be Returning To Newport!
When owners and crew of 12 Metres gather at regattas or the 12 Metre Yacht Club at the Clarke Cooke House, it does not take long for a story to surface about America’s Cup campaigns. Hardly surprising considering a number of veterans from those campaigns circa 1970-87 are still sailing 12s.
As with most sports– it’s all about the people. Stories are less about tacking duels off Brenton Reef and more about the characters involved in designing, building and sailing the 12s. Shore-side supporters, particularly those from ‘Down Under’ who made it to Newport in 1983 add even more color to an already colorful story. Similarly, the 2001 World Championship held in conjunction with the 150th ‘Jubilee’ off Cowes attracted thirty-six Twelve Metres and at least several hundred of those same characters.
In 2019 the 12 Metre World Championship is scheduled to be held in Newport, hosted by the New York Yacht Club in conjunction with a regatta celebrating the Club’s 175th Anniversary. As plans for that celebration get underway in New York and Newport, another plan is being hatched 10,500 miles away in Melbourne, Australia.
The owner of the 1987 challenger Kookaburra I, who at one time also owned KZ-3, has been keeping his eye on Challenge Twelve, the trial horse for Australia II. She is currently in storage near Newport. He and his merry crew from ‘Down Under’ competed with ‘Kooka’ and KZ-3 at the ‘Jubilee.’ Reportedly, a recent conversation over a ‘quiet little drink’ at a Yacht Club near Melbourne resulted in a ‘why not’ decision.
“Let’s look in to the idea of acquiring Challenge Twelve and campaigning her in Newport, during the summers of 2017-18 and on to the World Championship in 2019.
Then bring her back to Melbourne.” The instigator was ‘egged on’ by several participants in that ‘quiet little drink’– they sailed on Challenge 12 in her duels with Australia II.
If this plan comes to fruition, the Syndicate will be aptly named. While fitting, ‘Geriatric Larrikins’ is already taken. Australian 12 Metre characters arrived on the docks of Newport from the 60s to the 80s, with a small kitbag, a large thirst, passion for the sport, a desire to win and a lovable sense of humor. This mob from Melbourne will be no different.
In 1978, 2-time defender Intrepid (US-22) was owned by Baron Bich. Gerry Driscoll was keen to charter her, provided that he could raise the funds for a campaign; his sights set on a 3-peat. Meanwhile, he sailed Intrepid as a trial horse to France III. (In 100 starts, France III reached the first mark ahead of Intrepid only once.)
As crew boss, I had more than 30 sailors try out for crew spots over two summers. I was also responsible for the maintenance and tuning of the rig. At this time rigging was made with galvanized wire, which was hard on everything including the winch drums and crew. And in order to economize, I tried to make the runner tails last as long as possible, they typically lasted just 4 (sailing) days. On one occasion, during day 5 or 6 of use on a set, and just after a tack, a wire tail wrapped on a winch drum exploded shooting out tiny shards of wire, it was like a porcupine had let loose! I had “quills” stuck in my arms, and they burned with the sweat. It was only after we made a quick tack on the other board that I was able to turn around to see that Gerry had wire quills in one side of his face and arm. He had never flinched or uttered a word, he just kept driving.– Steve Lirakis
The Twelve Metre Class has operated under the so-called Third Rule since 1933. Using an unchanged rating formula for more than 80 years, although with some changes in secondary technical details, Twelve Metre designs have evolved significantly within the Rule’s envelope.
The basic structure of the (First) Rule was created in 1906, with a similar formula as the Third Rule, but having additional terms that were subsequently discarded and changes made in the weighting of other terms.
Rating = (L + B + 1⁄2G + 3d + 1⁄3√S – F)/2 = 12.000 m
The basis of L, d, S and F are close to the way that they are used in the current Rule, although S was based on gaff rigs. L included girth corrections for the overhangs at the ends of L, similar to now. G was a midships girth measurement taken under the keel, which forced keels to reduce their draft forward of the rudder post – a poor design influence.
12, by the way, was meant to be the approximate waterline length, but LWL has grown toward 14 m in evolutionary design development.
Shortcomings of the Rule were apparent early on, and a lot of effort went into improvements after WW I. The Second Rule in 1920 abandoned maximum beam B and replaced it with a minimum beam limit. The weighting of G was halved, the factor on d was reduced to 2 and √S was taken at full value. The denominator was changed to 2.5 to keep existing yachts’ ratings close to 12.
Also, the reference plane for L was raised from the LWL to 11⁄2% of Class rating above the LWL, the lower end for measuring d was set at 121⁄2% of rating below LWL. The fore triangle area was discounted by a factor of 85%. And a formula for minimum displacement was introduced, along with prohibiting hollows in the topsides.
The Second Rule is actually quite close to the Third Rule except for one term. The girth G under the keel was eliminated in the Third-Rule formula, and the denominator re-set to 2.37 to keep ratings close to 12. With these most recent changes in the rating formula in 1933, the Third Rule became the familiar:
Rating = (L + 2d – F + √S)/2.37 = 12.000 m
There are many detailed requirements and restrictions within the text of the Class Rule, but separate rudders and trim tabs, and then winged keels, have nonetheless broken through design barriers while fitting within these same, basic Rule parameters. Even Appendix E, created in preparation for the America’s Cup Jubilee in 2001, is built on this basic Rule formula with credits for age, design type and propulsion.
The Rule’s girth measurements in the overhangs and the separate displacement-length formula cause the long overhangs and U’d end shapes common to all Twelves. The specified location of the midships d measurement, also coupled with displacement-length, forces the hull’s slack-bilged shape. And the fixed, maximum heights of the mainsail and fore triangle dictate the rig. All pretty simple and durable since the Second Rule of 1920, yet leaving liberty for a century of distinctly different designs.
I was poking around boatyards as I had done most of my life; it was the fall of 1976 when I ran into Jeff Neuberth, the project manager for the Courageous-Independence Syndicate. Jeff had been told that I was sailing on Enterprise with Lowell North and was surprised to learn that was not the case. I was invited to join the Independence crew shortly after that.
Ted Hood designed and built Independence and had leased Courageous to Ted Turner. It was the first real two-boat program. Ideal for sail development and boat refinement.
Ted Turner had said leading in to this program that he wanted a time tested boat; still smarting from the Mariner disaster in 1974. Independence being the “new boat” was always expected to be the ultimate selection. Courageous was referred to as the trial horse. It was difficult to know which boat was faster as most of our sailing in those early months (February-May) were long tacks sometimes 30 miles!
A mini-regatta was organized with racing between Courageous and Independence before we towed to Newport for the June trails. Courageous proved to be faster on every point of sail in those races. Reg Pierce who had been aboard Courageous for the successful 1974 defense looked up from the grinder handles and said: “It’s going to be a long summer.” These proved to be prophetic words.
Hover over images to reveal captions, click to view any photo at full size…
by David Pedrick
The Class Rule for Twelves has changed very little since the time of the America’s Cup Jubilee in Cowes in 2001. The major change made prior to that event was Appendix E, created to categorize older yachts and grant rating credits for design obsolescence with age, including generational changes in appendage configuration. A Propeller Allowance was also created to give partial credit for the hydrodynamic drag of the propeller installation and the compromised weight distribution from the engine.
Prior to the 2001 Rule, the contents of the 1985 Rule for the final America’s Cup regatta in Twelves was substantially reorganized in 1994 and issued for the NYYC’s Sesquicentennial Regatta. The text format of the Rule has remained essentially unchanged since then, other than adding Appendix E in 2001.
Between 2001 and 2013, the principal Rule change was in sail materials for the Classics. Initially, Division C was defined solely as having a keel-hung rudder, with sub-divisions of C1 for post-WW II, C2 for pre WW II (under Rules 3 and 2), and C3 for the first Rule, gaff-rigged. The sail material specification for all of Division C had a maximum fiber modulus of 250 grams/denier. For reference, the modulus limit in the main Rule was 1000 gm/den, suitable for laminated Kevlar sails.
The Rule change voted earlier this year raises the permitted fiber modulus in the general Rule for Divisions A and B (Winged Keel and Modern) to 1550 grams/denier, proposed originally at 1400 gm/den. This allows the use of materials that have become more common generally in high-performance racing, notably carbon fiber.
Meanwhile, back in 2004, sail materials for the entire Classic Division C were restricted to be even more elastic, requiring woven construction and a maximum fiber modulus of 120 grams/denier, effectively limiting such sails to woven Dacron. The Rule declared the end of all use of existing 250 gm/den sails after 2004. This conservatism seems to have been driven by cost concerns within the Newport fleet.
However, the Northern European Fleet was quite happy with the 250 gm/den specification, and continued to build sails with materials and construction that had been allowed before 2004 by preference and without problems. This interest was confined to Division C2 (pre-WW II) – later changed to Division D, within which most of the active racing European yachts belong.
The 2011 revision of the Rule kept the woven-sail, 120 gm/den limitation for the newly designated Divisions C (post-WW II) and E (Rule 1 gaffers), and continued to accept the 250 gm/den fiber modulus for Division D, but in a peculiar way. It permitted the 250 gm/den modulus only for sails that had been measured before 2008 – an anomaly that was waived by fleet choice in European regattas. This was resolved in 2013 by eliminating the grandfather restriction.
Meanwhile, Classic Twelves in Divisions C and E are still limited to the woven-sail, 120 gm/den modulus limit from the 2004 Rule, while Division D has the 250 gm/den limit that was confirmed in 2013. It seems incongruous for Division C to require more elastic sails than Division D, inviting discussion about revising this for consistency with Division D before hosting the World Championship regatta in 2019.
by Stephen Lirakis
In 1973 I accepted a job at Minneford’s Yacht Yard to build aluminum boats lured by the assurance that I would build the next Sparkman & Stephens twelve meter; the first in aluminum. Interestingly the decision had been taken to supply the offsets in metric; a departure from tradition. The reason being that it would be more precise– the plans for the keel were supplied in tenths of a foot. Finding metric rulers in 1973 was not as easy as today, as well having to find a tape in tenths.
The plans for a twelve meter were delivered in the fall of 1973. This boat was originally going to be sailed by Bill Ficker and his team. We even built a mock-up of the boat which we could heel, Bill and the crew came to try the layout and make suggestions. Due to circumstances Bill and his team were out. Olin instructed us to continue work on the boat as he looked for a new syndicate.
Only two of us were assigned to the build during this time. To further retard our progress; no scantlings existed for aluminum twelves meter. We developed scantlings that we proposed to Lloyds and then had to wait for their approval.
As we laid down the lines of Courageous it became clear that her design was an evolution of Constellation and Intrepid; with subtle and progressive innovations, all within The Rule.
Hover over images to reveal captions, click to view any photo at full size…
We built all the fittings at Minneford’s, Including the cauldron in which we melted 50,000 pounds of lead for the keel which we poured into the mould made of 50,000 pounds of cement. The pour took place over a 24 hour period with breaks for food.
Even though the keel mould had cured for at least 6 weeks, once we started the pour of molten lead into the mold the steam coming from the cement was frightening. I was concerned that the whole thing might explode. Happily it did not.
Looking back, I went to Minneford’s to be involved in building a 12 meter, never imagining Courageous would be the last two-time defender.